Commitment to Web Accessibility

This website aims to provide an accessible experience for all users of all abilities, including those who rely on assistive technologies like screen readers, screen enlargement software, and alternative keyboard input devices to navigate the web.

The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) are internationally agreed-upon standards that cover a wide range of recommendations and best practices for making content useable. New pages and functionality added to this website, as well as designs, code, and content entry practices are checked against these standards for WCAG 2.1 Level A compliance, and aim to meet the majority of Level AA criteria wherever feasible. Given the constraints of a limited budget for this small personal website, some parts of the content may not fully conform to the Level AA accessibility standard.

Website testing

Website testing is performed using industry-standard tools such as the Google Lighthouse Accessibility Tools, and follow guidelines provided by Toronto Metropolitan University. Initial testing assesses 42 features of every webpage for accessibility issues. Automated testing is followed by more checks on selected representative pages, using additional tools provided by Microsoft. New content is automatically checked for accessibility whenever it is added to the website.

The most important test categories are:

Tests check whether the site’s navigation is consistent and accessible.

ARIA is a semantic HTML extension that makes websites more accessible for those with disabilities. Tests check whether ARIA has been correctly implemented.

Names and labels
Tests check whether form fields and buttons are marked with meaningful labels, and if images have alternative text.

For a significant number of users, text with low contrast is difficult or impossible to read. Tests check whether the contrast ratio between background and foreground colors is sufficient.

Tables and lists
Screen readers offer functions that make navigating tables and lists much easier. Tests check whether these have been implemented correctly.

Audio & Video
If a video contains subtitles, those with hearing impairments users can better understand its content. Tests check if there are correct markups.

Internationalization & Localization
When a valid language is specified on a website, screen readers can correctly display text. Tests check that a valid language has been specified.


Website accessibility is an ongoing process. and involves remediating any issues to ensure the website meets the relevant standards. I welcome comments, questions, and feedback about the website. If you are using assistive technologies and are having difficulty using the website, please email me using the details on my Contact page. I will do my best to assist you and resolve issues.


Version 2.1. We shall update this notice from time to time as necessary.